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An American Affidavit

Friday, February 23, 2018

14.The Schools Of Hellas: The Underground History of American Education by John Taylor Gatto from archive.org

The Schools Of Hellas

      Wherever it occurred, schooling through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (up until  the last third of the nineteenth) heavily invested its hours with language, philosophy, art,  and the life of the classical civilizations of
Greece and Rome. In the grammar schools of  the day, little pure grammar as we understand it existed; they were places of classical  learning. Early America rested easily on a foundation of classical understanding, one  subversive to the normal standards of British class society. The lessons of antiquity were  so vital to the construction of every American institution it's hardly possible to grasp how  deep the gulf between then and now is without knowing a little about those lessons.  Prepare yourself for a surprise.     

     For a long time, for instance, classical Athens distributed its most responsible public  positions by lottery: army generalships, water supply, everything. The implications are  awesome — trust in everyone's competence was assumed; it was their version of  universal driving. Professionals existed but did not make key decisions; they were only  technicians, never well regarded because prevailing opinion held that technicians had  enslaved their own minds. Anyone worthy of citizenship was expected to be able to think  clearly and to welcome great responsibility. As you reflect on this, remember our own  unvoiced assumption that anyone can guide a ton of metal traveling at high speed with  three sticks of dynamite sloshing around in its tanks. 

      When we ask what kind of schooling was behind this brilliant society which has  enchanted the centuries ever since, any honest reply can be carried in one word: None.  After writing a book searching for the hidden genius of Greece in its schools, Kenneth  Freeman concluded his unique study The Schools of Hellas in 1907 with this summary,  "There were no schools in Hellas." No place boys and girls spent their youth attending  continuous instruction under command of strangers. Indeed, nobody did homework in the  modern sense; none could be located on standardized tests. The tests that mattered came  in living, striving to meet ideals that local tradition imposed. The word skole itself means  leisure, leisure in a formal garden to think and reflect. Plato in The Laws is the first to  refer to school as learned discussion.  

     The most famous school in Athens was Plato's Academy, but in its physical  manifestation it had no classes or bells, was a well-mannered hangout for thinkers and  seekers, a generator of good conversation and good friendship, things Plato thought lay at  the core of education. Today we might call such a phenomenon a salon. Aristotle's  Lyceum was pretty much the same, although Aristotle delivered two lectures a day — a  tough one in the morning for intense thinkers, a kinder, gentler version of the same in the  afternoon for less ambitious minds. Attendance was optional. And the famous  Gymnasium so memorable as a forge for German leadership later on was in reality only  an open training ground where men sixteen to fifty were free to participate in high-  quality, state- subsidized instruction in boxing, wrestling, and javelin.  

     The idea of schooling free men in anything would have revolted Athenians. Forced  training was for slaves. Among free men, learning was self-discipline, not the gift of  experts. From such notions Americans derived their own academies, the French their  lycees, and the Germans their gymnasium. Think of it: In Athens, instruction was  unorganized even though the city-state was surrounded by enemies and its own society  engaged in the difficult social experiment of sustaining a participatory democracy,  extending privileges without precedent to citizens, and maintaining literary, artistic, and  legislative standards which remain to this day benchmarks of human genius. For its 500-  year history from Homer to Aristotle, Athenian civilization was a miracle in a rude  world; teachers flourished there but none was grounded in fixed buildings with regular  curricula under the thumb of an intricately layered bureaucracy. 

      There were no schools in Hellas. For the Greeks, study was its own reward. Beyond that  few cared to go.    

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