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Friday, April 20, 2018

Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

ArticleinScience of The Total Environment 409(19):3649-65 · September 2011with531 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.05.051 · Source: PubMed

    • 25.75
    • Federal University of Minas Gerais

    • 8.09
    • Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG)

  • Abstract
    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 μW/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 μW/cm(2).
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    • ... Nonetheless, the study's main difficulty is the rare number of cases due to the reduced incidence of the disease; therefore in future studies it is intended to apply other alternative methods of analysis, for example, Application of the Double Kernel Density Approach ( Davarashvili et al., 2016). The obtained results would question the studies which, if any type of correlation were found, would be exclusively based in the location of the emission sources ( Atzmon et al., 2012;Dode et al., 2011;Elliott and Savitz, 2008;Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2014;Stewart et al., 2012). However, since this deals with the first epidemiological study which analyzes the incidence of the RF-EMF on specific tumors (gliomas, meningiomas and lymphomas) in a city, it is not possible to compare the results with other research papers. ...

  • ... Evidence of radiation damage was even found in potted plants inside patient homes (Waldmann-Selsam and Eger, 2013). Thus, this study is certainly complementary to the study by Eger and Jahn (2010) and other research that has shown effects on the health of people by phone masts located in their vicinity (Santini et al., 2002; Eger et al., 2004; Wolf and Wolf, 2004; Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007; Khurana et al., 2010; Dode et al., 2011; Gómez-Perretta et al., 2013; Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2014; Belyaev et al., 2015). In the introduction to the International Seminar on " Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on the Living Environment " in 1999 in Ismaning, Germany, organized by WHO, ICNIRP and German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), M. Repacholi, head of the International EMF Project of the WHO, said: " By comparison, influences of these fields on plants, animals, birds and other living organisms have not been properly examined. ...

  • ... Among the emission sources, we highlight the mobile phone antennas due to their high number, which have been the object of numerous studies (Röösli et al., 2010). However, almost the majority of these studies, which have dealt with the potential effects of the emitted radiation on health, have focused on the location of the antennas and exclusively in the proximity of the cases of disease (Atzmon et al., 2012; Dode et al., 2011; Elliott et al., 2011 Elliott et al., , 2010 Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2014; Stewart et al., 2012). Although the use of the distance to the antenna as an exposure indicator has been questioned in several work papers (Foster and Trottier, 2013 ), few alternatives have been presented for the execution of epidemiological studies on the potential effects of the RF-EMF generated by the telephone antennas. ...

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