- 1 Official narrative
- 2 Origins
- 3 Leadership
- 4 Meetings
- 5 Activities
- 6 Funding
- 7 An event carried out
- 8 Related Documents
- 9 References
Official narrativeIn 2000, a single official webpage at www.atlanticcircle.com described Le Cercle as "an informal group of European and American professionals - politicians, retired Ambassadors, former Generals, lawyers and active participants in banking, oil, shipping, publishing and trading companies - who are interested in preserving a positive Atlantic dialogue." To the UK House of Lords, this group has been described as an "informal group meeting to discuss world affairs." William Hague described it as "a political group which organises conferences." In 2007 the Washington Post termed it a "foreign policy think tank established during the Cold War that reportedly included senior politicians, diplomats and intelligence agents worldwide." Inviting the banker Jean-Maxime Leveque in 1983, Monique Garnier-Lançon wrote that at The Cercle "The leaders of the free world can now examine the very grave problems which we face in order to determine together possible solutions and then to try to implement them, each in their respective sphere."
David Teacher, by contrast, writes that "the Cercle complex can be seen to be an international coalition of right-wing intelligence veterans, working internationally to promote top conservative politicians who would shape the world in the 1970s and 1980s."
OriginsAlthough named after a French prime minister from 1952, the real organizer of this group is believed to have been Jean Violet, a close associate of Pinay's since 1951. The group arose from a Franco-German alliance an originally its anti-communism had a catholic Christian flavour. In the 1970s, it assumed a transatlantic secular flavour, especially with the involvement of Ted Shackley, under whose influence meetings were held on alternate sides of the Atlantic, with Shackley chairing the US meetings.
Leadership - one for the Autumn meeting in the USA, one for the Spring meeting in Europe. The identity of the American chairman is unknown. The US chairman is less publicised, so unqualified references to "The Chairman" will very probably be references to the European chairman. European chairs include Brian Crozier (1980-1985), Julian Amery (1985 - early 1990s), Christian Schwarz-Schilling (1 year), Jonathan Aitken (1993-1996), Norman Lamont (over 10 years) and most recently, Michael Ancram. Only two US chairmen are known: Ted Shackley and his successor, Richard T. McCormack.
Geoffrey Tantum was named by The Telegraph as the Cercle's UK secretary.
- Full article: Le Cercle/Meetings
IdeologyCercle attendees have a clear hawkish orientation, which could be summarised as 'extreme right wing' and anti-communist. Many have been closely involved in establishing a range of nominally independent institutions to research first "anti-communism" and later "terrorism". These have been used to promote cold war paranoia and lay the ideological groundwork for a "global war on terror".
AttendanceThe identity of attendees was largely a matter of conjecture until 2011 when ISGP researcher, Joël van der Reijden obtained and published 5 guest lists for Le Cercle meetings, gleaned from the private papers of French Cercle visitor Monique Garnier-Lançon at Stanford University, which led him to create a list which inspired the list on the right.
These lists detail deep politicians - i.e. politicians, spooks, bankers, diplomats, deep political actors, military officers, oil experts, editors and publishers who may or may not have retired from their official functions. The participants come almost exclusively from western or western-oriented countries. Many important members tend to be affiliated with the aristocratic circles in London or obscure elements within the Vatican, and accusations of links to fascism and synarchism are anything but uncommon in this milieu.
SecrecyLe Cercle has had only a few mentions in the commercially-controlled media, of which the earliest was possibly Time Out magazine's 1975 leak of documents from the Institute for the Study of Conflict which referenced the "Pinay Committee". No American commercially-controlled media sources are known to have mentioned the group. Le Cercle was mentioned in the early 1980s by the German magazine Der Spiegel (which also published the first article on the Bilderberg group) as a result of the controversy surrounding Franz Josef Strauss, a regular attendant. In the late 1990s, Le Cercle received some more attention after a scandal broke out involving Jonathan Aitken, who was then European chairman. Members who were contacted by newspapers refused to answer any questions about the group. It has only been briefly mentioned in the commercially-controlled media since then - internet researchers have worked hard to raise the group's profile. The most comprehensive study so far has been done by ISGP researcher, Joël van der Reijden, whose work prompted David Teacher to pursue his study of the group and republish an updated edition of his work on the group Rogue Agents. A couple of researchers have published Ph.D. theses on the group which deserve wider publication. As of June 2017, neither Spartacus nor History Commons had a page on this group. A research proposal by Adrian Hänni noted that "the Cercle is virtually nonexistent in academic research to this day... There are, as of yet, very few studies of the Cercle that are based on primary sources and meet basic academic standards."
ActivitiesThe 1982 Langemann Papers were the first significant leak to expose the activities of Le Cercle, confirming that the group was actively involved in influencing Western European elections. Evidence of their involvement in other matters such weapons dealing and covert military action remains circumstantial.
Support for Conservative PoliticiansDavid Teacher reports that "throughout the 1970s the Cercle Pinay complex was active [influencing elections in the UK,] France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Belgium." He writes that "the Cercle complex can be seen to be an international coalition of right-wing intelligence veterans, working internationally to promote top conservative politicians who would shape the world in the 1970s and 1980s."
The Langemann Papers (November 1979) quote a planning paper by Brian Crozier about a Cercle complex operation "to affect a change of government in the United Kingdom (accomplished)". This may be a reference to the success of the "Shield" group which Crozier set up in 1976, probably with the express purpose of getting Margaret Thatcher elected, a year after she was invited to the Bilderberg meeting by Labour's Dennis Healey.
Disruption of Left Wing GovernmentsLe Cercle has also been accused of actively destabilizing governments which opposed a conservative economic agenda, such as Gough Whitlam's Australian government. Cercle member Robert Gascoyne-Cecil chaired the conservative Monday Club which prepared a coup against Labour government of Harold Wilson.
Promotion of European IntegrationLe Cercle (like the Bilderberg Group, to which it is often compared) is strongly focused on European integration, going back to the efforts of its early members to bring about a Franco-German rapprochement. The significant presence of Paneuropa-affiliated Opus Dei members and Knights of Malta, together with statements of the Vatican and Otto von Habsburg, suggest an agenda of creating a new "Holy Roman Empire" with borders from the Atlantic to the Black Sea and from the Baltic Sea to North Africa. Interestingly, the latest generation of British Cercle members, whose predecessors were keen on joining the European Union, now seem to want to keep Britain out of the emerging European superstate, perhaps having lost faith they can become a significant force within Europe. Their American associates, however, would like for them to continue the effort of breaking into the Franco-German alliance and possibly to establish a new Anglo-German alliance.
"War on Terror"
- Full article: “War on Terror”
Covert Military InterventionFollowing a Nasserite coup in Yemen in September 1962, Julian Amery (later Cercle chairman) met with King Hussein of Jordan and agreed to send Cercle attendee Neil McLean to report on the situation after which Amery met with McLean, David Stirling, Col Brian Franks and UK Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home to organise an unofficial mercenary operation.
Weapons dealingJohn Carbaugh worked for GeoMiliTech Consultants Corporation, an arms dealing group directly involved in Iran-Contra. Others such as Margaret Carlisle were aides to Iran-Contra insiders. Cercle members Paul Channon and Alan Clark are connected through their involvement in the Arms-to-Iraq affair, also to the later chairman Jonathan Aitken, who himself was involved in the Al-Yamamah arms deal as well, as was another later chairman, Norman Lamont. Nadhmi Auchi is widely reported as having made a lot of money from arms deals to Saddam Hussein, amongst others.
Other activitiesLacking documents or testimony from Cercle members, inferences about Cercle activities remain unconfirmed. Ted Shackley was involved in oil deals after he left the CIA in 1979, facilitated by his close friend and fellow Cercle member, Conrad Gerber and oil smuggler John Deuss. Joël van der Reijden has suggested that Le Cercle was important in the organization of the 9/11 attacks.
FundingFunding for the group has changed over the years. The group states that it is "privately funded". Multinational companies including Philips and Standard Elektrik Lorenz have given the group money. In 1971, Shell contributed a lump sum of £30,000. The Ford Foundation also donated £20,000 over three years[When?]. Robin Ramsay, editor of Lobster Magazine believes the CIA funds the group, a claim that Alan Clark also makes in his diaries. In the 1980s, the South African government was a major source of funds.
An event carried outUse the Up/Dn symbols to sort
|1975 Australian coup||15 October 1975 - 11 November 1975||Canberra|
|Circle of Power||article||1999||David Guyatt|
|File:Rogue Agents (4th edition, 2015, full).pdf||book||2014||David Teacher||A book about the activities of the covert European groupings responsible for the realisation of the European Union between the end of World War II and the mid 1990's|
|The Pinay Circle||article||1989||David Teacher|
- Teacher, David (2008-01-06). Rogue Agents: The Cercle Pinay complex 1951-1991. p. 233.